bethlehem star
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biblical astronomy
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                          The Stars Over Bethlehem

 On December 25th, 2 BC, in "The Stars over Bethlehem," Jupiter became stationary for six days in Virgo, due to its annual retrograde motion during the Feast of Dedication, which was the third day of Hannukah, at the time of the Winter Solstice. Mars and Venus are in Ophiuchus, with the Sun in Capricorn. Saturn was in Taurus' horns, with Mercury and the Moon in Sagittarius, and the Moon is occulting the star Nunki.

birth of jesus

  "The Star of Bethlehem," as it has been known in tradition for centuries, has caused untold confusion with regards to the birth-date of Jesus Christ. Much of this confusion is due to the fact that the Magi actually presented their gifts to the child Jesus on this date, who was about 15 and one half months old by this time. This holiday via Roman Catholic tradition, related to the previous pagan holiday Saturnalia, which became recognized and celebrated as "Christ-mass," once Christianity became the official state religion of Rome, but those with any knowledge of this subject realize this was not Chist's birthday. The Sun standing still in Capricorn marks the lamb of God, found and honored in Bethlehem by the Magi. Upon leaving the massing of planets in August of 2 BC, Jupiter continued in its westerly retrograde motion observed intently by the Magi in their normal early morning observations. It entered Virgo in early December of 2 BC, where it took up a Meridian position during the union of Venus & Mars. Earnest Martin states:

"…This apparent westward motion of Jupiter each day could have indicated to the Magi to proceed in the same westward direction toward Jerusalem." During their visit with Herod, the Magi were directed to Bethlehem by the input of the Judean Scribes." 1

Matthew 2:2
Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.

As Wierwille states;

" Herod had directed them to Bethlehem because of a scriptural prophecy. Now the star confirmed this location by appearing directly before them as they approached the city of David. Both Scripture and the Heavens were directing them. Interestingly, their journey brought them to Jerusalem in December, at which time a joyous festival called the Feast of Dedication, Hanukkah, took place. The significance of this time is apparent when one considers that the Feast of Dedication marked the restoration of worship in the Temple after a period of foreign occupation. Now, the Magi were coming to pay respect to, or worship, the young King of the Judeans, who was the true Temple." 2[emphasis mine]

John 2:19
Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.

  The Feast of Dedication in the reference above, memorialized the removal of idols and idolatry from the Temple during the period of the Maccabees. This is interesting when we realize that directly prior to making this statement in John  2:19 above, Jesus’ response to the religious leaders of Israel, who asked him for a sign, was cleansing the Temple from the corruption involved in the illicit sales of inferior quality sacrificial goods in the Temple’s courts. This cleansing of the Temple would have been necessary in the proper preparation and sanctification for the upcoming Passover feast. God’s providence never ceases to amaze us as we realize the perfect timing and orchestration of the heavenly bodies in this celestial showcase of signs surrounding the birth of Christ. Even more engaging is the Magi’s involvement, a group of Gentile astronomers, who alone identified and acted with believing on their discernment of these celestial announcements of Jesus’ birth. The history of the Magi both before and after the death of Zoroaster, marks two distinct groups or Magian sects, the first group more popularized, following the idolatrous teachings of Astrology, and "magic," rooted in Sun worship. The other group became acquainted with the updated teachings of the coming King of the Judeans under the tutelage of the prophet Daniel [Daniel 5:11], during the Babylonian captivity. Daniel built on the rich traditions of Zoroastrianism, setting the standard for revealing the spiritual significance of celestial phenomena according to the principles of the Astronomy of the Biblical Patriarchs. As Wierwille states:

"The truth regarding "his star" became accessible knowledge to the Magi when the Persians took over the Babylonian Empire {Daniel 5:31}. As recorded in Daniel 6, at the time of the take-over, Daniel retained the high position he had held under Babylonian rule… According to Daniel 6:3, Daniel was again set over the Magi, and therefore could fully instruct them in the accurate knowledge of Biblical prophecy written in the stars. Thus, the Judeans in the courts of Nebuchadnezzar the Babylonian, and Darius the Persian passed their knowledge of the spiritual significance of the Constellations to the Magi who preserved it and hence were aware of the promise of the birth of the Judean King." 3

  As Gentile astronomers in recognition of the promised seed, the Magi were some of the first non-Judeans to realize the coming glory of the Son of God, as Isaiah 60:3 indicates: And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising., . Their realization also foreshadowed the mystery of the body of the Church of Grace revealed in Ephesians 3:6 where; the Gentiles should be fellowheirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel. This was indicated by Jesus’ reference in John 2:19, and here by the Magi who sought out the promised seed in Bethlehem to pay respect to, or worship, the young King of the Judeans, who was the true Temple. God working with these Gentiles here, also speaks to the deep corruption of the Judean religious leaders in Jerusalem, seen also with their confrontation by both Jesus and John the Baptist. In a footnote of this same reference V.P. Wierwille states:

"Since there was no prohibition of work for the Judeans, or a holy convocation, the Magi, though being Gentiles, were able to secure all the aid they required from the Judeans to find the child. The first day of the feast was on Kislev 25 of the Hebrew calendar, and continued for eight days. In the year 2 B.C., this was from December 22 to 29." 4[emphasis mine]

hebrew calendar

Matthew 2:9
When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.

  Wierwille goes on to say that: "According to astronomical calculations, Jupiter was not visible crossing the Meridian, the "high point" over Bethlehem from September through November of 2 BC …However by December 4 of 2 BC, Jupiter became visible at the Meridian shortly before dawn…the eclipse that shortly preceded Herod’s death occurred on January 9, 1 BC. Thus it was sometime during this five week period from December 4th to January 9th that the Magi journeyed from Jerusalem to Bethlehem and saw the star of Matt. 2:9."5 [emphasis mine]

Wierwille also points out in reference to "came and stood over" that:

   "Astronomically, stars and planets are similar to the sun in that they rise in the east and set in the west. Furthermore, a star or planet is like the sun in that it will reach a high point in the sky in relation to the observer. At this point it is on the Meridian (longitude) of the observer. During the day, the sun reaches this point at noon. Consider the stars and planets in their nightly courses. They rise in the east. At some time during the night each will reach its highest point in relation to the observer, the Meridian. If this occurs in the southern sky as one is travelling south, as with the Magi travelling from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, the star would appear to come and stand over one’s destination."6

  We should recall at this juncture Jupiter’s annual activities including its retrograde motion, which began according to Martin, on December 25 in 2 BC Martin states: "Jupiter arrived at its ordinary time for retrogression and it became stationary among the stars. But this time something unusual happened. In 2 BC as viewed from Jerusalem, Jupiter came to its normal stationary position directly over Bethlehem on December 25th…not only that, the planet assumed its stationary position while in the middle of the Constellation of Virgo, the Virgin." 7

  Thus, according to Martin, the same astronomical phenomena that initiated Jupiter’s three Conjunctions with Regulus, its annual retrogression, or retrograde motion would have caused Jupiter to stand still in the heavens for about six days near the intersection of the ecliptic and the Meridian mid-body in Virgo. This occurred in week of the celebration of the Feast of Dedication in December of 2 BC. Also recall the relationship between the cycles of the Sun and Jupiter, and that it was the Sun, mid-bodied in Virgo for the twenty-day period, from August 27th to September 15th, marking the birth of the promised seed. 

  Martin goes on to say that: "on December 25th, 2 BC at the ordinary time for the Magi’s pre-dawn observations, Jupiter would have been seen in Meridian position (directly over Bethlehem) at an elevation of 68 degrees above the southern horizon. This precise position would show the planet shining directly down on Bethlehem while it was stationary among the stars." 8

  Martin’s assertion that Jupiter began its retrograde motion on December 25th, 2 BC, agrees with the parameters set by V.P. Wierwille regarding the beginning of the Feast of Dedication, that year which was from December 22 to 29. Wierwille, also points out that; As the Magi left Jerusalem, they saw Jupiter on its nightly course. Looking south they saw it high in the sky, nearing its apex on the Meridian of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. Thus, the king planet-Jupiter was clothing Virgo, as the Sun did during the birth of the promised seed, mirroring the movement of the light of the world, while clearly marking the birthplace of the King of the Jews for the Magi.  


         These were important celestial indicators for the Magi, who would have seen the spiritual significance of "his star"—Jupiter, "clothing" Virgo during the month of December in 2 BC, directly over Bethlehem, indicating the birthplace of the King of Kings, who would inherit David’s throne. In this light, we can understand Balaam’s great prophecy in Numbers 24, as a reference to this. Num. 24:17
I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh, there shall come a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and he shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.

spiritual significance

"Star out of Jacob and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel"- Star = H3556 (kowkab) figuratively an illustrious Prince who is the star to rise out of Jacob, holding the scepter as ruler over Israel. We should take notice of the figure of speech polysyndetyn utilized in this verse regarding the "many ands" which emphasize each aspect of the verse appearing between the ands. This "star" was associated with the sceptre rising out of Israel, is a celestial reference to the sign of Leo the Lion with specific implications for it’s brightest luminary, Regulus the king star, the brightest star on the ecliptic also known as the "heart of the Lion." The King's sceptre is the symbol of his power over the heathens and those who oppose his purposes, by which he will rule over them with an unbending authority or "rod of iron," [Ps. 2, Rev. 19:15]. Regulus was known by the ancients as the only king star which is linked with this scepter. This fulfills Jacob’s prophesy, that one holding this scepter would arise out of Judah according to Genesis 49. Secondly, the regal authority of this star is established in the king planet-Jupiter, whose authority as we have just seen, was symbolized by Leo the Lion, of the tribe of Judah that provided the regal stock from which the kingly line of Israel arose, first in King David, and ultimately in Jesus Christ from the "root of David" [Rev. 5:5]. The triple planetary Conjunction of the king planet Jupiter, with the king star Regulus in Leo from 3-2 BC, thus aligns specifically with the prophecy of Genesis 49:8-10, which shows the maturation of the Lion of the Tribe of Judah. Balaam’s revelation here in Numbers 24:17 provides the Scriptural basis for the connection between the "star of Jacob" [Jupiter] and the "Sceptre," to the advent of Christ the King, who came forth out of Jacob’s genealogical line. Secondly, there is a celestial double meaning in the phrase: Star out of Jacob, with connotations for both the general and specific aspects of our Celestial Prelude. The complete details of the correlation between the triple Conjunction of Jupiter and Regulus in 3-2 BC and the record in Gen. 49, is available through our bookstore on the DVD "The Biblical Astronomy of the Birth of Christ." This unique teaching provides the in-depth instruction on the celestial pagentry of the birth of Christ, along with the history of the Magi and numerous related Biblical Astronomy topics which space does not allow on the website.

   As we have shown, the ecliptic is structured so that each of the 12 primary signs of the zodiac of 30 degrees has three decans associated with them, of 10 degrees each. The first decan of Virgo was called Coma, which is depicted in the Dendera zodiac as a seated mother nourishing her infant son. Coma is the Hebrew name of this Constellation which means "the desired." The Egyptian name for this decan of Virgo was Shes-nu the desired son, [Hagg. 2:7]. It was in the head of this child, the desired of the nations, as Haggai prophesied him to be, that a supernova appeared over 100 years prior to the birth of Christ. E.W. Bullinger refers below, to the popular belief regarding this general sign that was prevalent in and before the first century BC:

"a traditional prophecy well known in the East, carefully preserved and handed down, that a new star would appear in this sign [Coma] when he whom it foretold, would be born." 

   This tradition is was based on Balaam’s declaration in Numbers 24, meaning that Balaam’s prophecy holds additional import. First, The new star, or supernova in the head of the infant in Coma, visible for a total of over 250 years, was the general sign that prepared the Magi to be on watch for specific aspects of the second part of the Celestial Prelude, involving the series of celestial signs from 7-5 BC. These signs surrounding the triple planetary Conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn in 7-6 BC would set the stage for the Magi's recognition of the triple planetary union of Jupiter-Regulus from 3-2 BC, that would mark the long prophesied birth of the promised seed. Here we see the third aspect of Balaam’s prophecy in relation to the scepter, symbolic of the reign of the king planet Jupiter. As we have seen in our study, Jupiter is the planet that the Magi referred to as "his Star" in
Matt. 2:2.

  "there shall come a star out of Jacob"- 
In Numbers 24:17, when "Jacob" is referred to, it refers not only to the seed of Jacob, but also the land promised to him, in his covenant with God. Bullinger states in reference to this star in Numbers 24:17 that the word "come" is, come forth (as in the Revised Version). He translates " there shall come a Star out of Jacob," as: "There shall come forth a star at or over the inheritance or possessions of Jacob," thus indicating the locality which would be on the Meridian of this star."10
[emphasis mine]

  This "Star out of Jacob" would not only be unique due to its Messianic symbolism, of the Promised Seed, but also because of the terrestrial link of his birthplace-Bethlehem of Judea, in the Promised Land of Jacob’s inheritance. This holy land, especially the town of Bethlehem, was specifically marked out by his star-Jupiter, as God guided the Magi to the birthplace of both David and Christ. Rolleston has an notable remark regarding this:

 "The Magi forewarned that the star must appear over Jacob, over his inheritance, would see that star in Coma passing over the center of that inheritance: but as it would also appear to pass vertically over every part of it that was nearly in the Latitude of Jerusalem, they could not at once fix on the spot of the Messiah’s birth, therefore they went to inquire; the Latitude, as it were, being given by the star, the longitude by the prophecy." 

  Rolleston’s quote reveals that she also fell victim to the confusion between the general and specific signs of the Celestial Prelude. It was not the new star in Coma that led the Magi to Bethlehem, which had been shining brightly for over 100 years, but the Scepter-Jupiter in Virgo stationary due to its retrograde motion during the winter Solstice that stood over Bethlehem, the inheritance of Jacob, that inspired the great joy of the Magi. It was the dual triple Conjunctions of Jupiter that identified the king planet as "His Star," and this was the same star that got them started on their caravan which led them to Jerusalem in August of 3 BC. Since Coma is the "L"-shaped decan of Virgo, pictured below, adjacent to it in the heavens, the Magi saw both the supernova in Coma, AND Jupiter in Virgo, simultaneously aligned on the Meridian in the same part of the skies over Bethlehem. We have depicted this graphically in the banner for this section of our web-site.

star of bethlehem

  Here we see the witness of the stars, and the Scriptures, working together to bring the Magi to the toddler Jesus, because their alert observation of "his star" brought them to Jerusalem and the scribes declaration from Micah 5:2, when Herod questioned them, sent the Magi south towards Bethlehem.
  Tracking again the historical references to the Coma supernova, Ignatius, one of the Church Fathers and the Bishop of Antioch, in about 69 AD, records that: "At the appearance of the Lord a star shone forth brighter than all other stars." If we are careful not to confuse this reference with the planet Jupiter, we can deduce that this supernova was still visible to Ignatius over 200 years after it first appeared, thus marking the general timeframe of Jesus’ birth. Seiss has some viable historical references which narrow down the period wherein this supernova was visible:

"Hipparchus about one hundred twenty-five years before Christ, observed it [the Coma supernova] as a new star, and was led by it to draw up his catalogue of stars. Ptolemy, about one hundred and fifty years after Christ, refers to it as having been observed by Hipparchus, but as having become so faint as hardly to be any longer distinguishable."

  A point of interest here regarding Hipparchus is that he is generally credited with the discovery of the precession of the equinoxes by modern science in about 134 BC. He reportedly came upon this discovery while studying the star Spica, on a celestial map produced by his predecessor, Timocharis. He noticed that Spica was about 2 degrees away from it’s location on the star map, and decided that it was moving an average of 1 degree every 75 years; [close to the actual 72 years]. This is a key to remember in our study of Dendera’s zodiac related to Spica, and this general sign detailed in other sections of our website. Rolleston also records the appearance of this bright new star in 125 BC, so bright that it was visible during the day.

   The Magi would have witnessed both this star shining brightly in Coma, in the head of the young desired son, seen as alreadly standing on his mother's lap, not as an infant in a manger! Just below Coma in VirgoJupiter was in retrograde motion standing still on the Meridian , on December 25th during their early morning observations around 4:25am in 2 BC, Jupiter was standing high over-head, directly above Bethlehem, as the Magi approached from Jerusalem, the  general sign in harmony with the specific. This gives another reason why the Magi were the only group to recognize the specific celestial signs of the Messiah’s birth, because the general sign was a fixture in Coma from about 128 BC to 150 AD, marking the general period the Promised Seed would appear. The typical person wouldn’t have noticed anything out of the ordinary in the heavens, because it would not stand out unless coupled with the knowledge of the specific signs, regarding Jupiter, which brought the Magi to Israel in the first place. This is another reason why the Magi were so over joyed when they saw "his star" over Bethlehem. Also of interest, is the truth that the Gentile Magi arrived during Hannukah-the festival of lights, which is also recognized as the second Feast of Tabernacles in Israel, allowed for those who missed the first one in September. It is fitting that the initial Gentile recognition and response to the light of the world should take place during this appropriate time, indicating God's Grace to mankind. The timing of the winter Solstice is also significant here because the Gentile Magi appeared at the time of the expected birth of the heathen sun-god, but honored the true Son of God instead, marking a much needed transition from the world's idol practices, to the true veneration of the Promised Seed-Jesus Christ.    
  This understanding of the distinction between the general and specific signs surrounding the birth of Christ should clear up the majority of the confusion and controversy related to this topic of study, if the Bible is recognized as the standard of truth, supported by history and the accuracy of the Biblical Astronomy as it has been detailed here. 

  With both Mars and Venus in Ophiuchus, during this sign in December of 2 BC, we can see the archangel Mars-Michael, standing to protect the ascendant morning star-the infant Jesus Christ, during this time when the enemy was on the attack. A noteworthy point here is Jupiter standing still in the heavens for about six days during the Hanukkah celebration, near the intersection of the ecliptic and the Meridian in Virgo. This emphasizes the path of Jupiter intersecting the ecliptic; the path of the Sun, and points out the celestial relationship between Jupiter and the Sun, not to mention their kindred symbolism.

Martin states that:

while Jupiter was in its "standing still" position over Bethlehem, the Sun was also "standing still." All know that December 25th is in the usual period of the Winter Solstice. The word Solstice means "Sun stands still." These stationary coincidences of Jupiter and the Sun are quite related, and would have appeared significant… 13

Malachi 4:2
But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall.

   The word "arise" in verse 2, is not only used of the Sun and light in general, but it and two of it's derivatives occur in Isaiah 60:1-3, Jer. 23:5. As we have seen in regards to Jer. 23:5, the planet Jupiter, the sedeq planet is associated with the Messiah, Jesus Christ the righteous zemach-branch, and is one of five primary Old Testament prophecies pertaining to this Branch, as the coming promised seed. However, with these stationary coincidences of Jupiter and the Sun, we have an additional Messianic-solar association. The reference of "arise" above, is very interesting when considered not only from the aspect of Jupiter standing still, in Virgo, but also referring to the setting time of the star Spica in Virgo, which bears the ancient Hebrew star name "Al Zemach." Thus it serves as a singular celestial  marker of the moment of Christ’s birth, which followed on the heels of Sunset in Virgo, during the first moments of Tishri 1, in 3 BC! Virgo provided the context for both Jupiter standing still on the Meridian as a reference to Bethlehem, the birth-place of Jesus Christ, and the star-set of Spica in reference to the birth-time of Jesus Christ, at the beginning of New Year’s day, Tishri 1, of the calendar of Israel.

  We have already considered the relationship between the Sun and the planet Jupiter apparent above, in light of the celestial kinship between these two heavenly bodies. The Messianic-solar relationship is seen not only in Malachi 4:2 above, but also in Revelation 21, where Jesus Christ appears as King of Kings and Lord of Lords.

Rev 21:22-23 And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it. [23] And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.

  As the manifested glory of God on the level of the senses, Jesus Christ the only begotten Son of God, the light of the world, will illuminate the city of righteousness, the New Jerusalem with his unified four dimensional ministry as the capstone and cheif corner stone of the body of Christ. There will be no need of a Temple at that time, because even as the Magi were coming to pay respect to, or worship, the young King of the Judeans, in 2 BC, so will all the inhabitants of the earth in that day, for every knee shall bow and every tongue shall confess to him, who is the head of the Church, the true Temple.

  Mercury and the Moon were located in Sagittarius during this sign, indicating Gabriel’s publishing of the king that was honored and gifted by the Magi. These gifts financed the trip to Egypt that the angel of the Lord instructed Joseph to take. This record is found in Matthew.

Matt. 2:11-15
11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh. 12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way. 13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. 14 When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt: 15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.

son of god

   Sagittarius indicates both the conflict and victory of the Son of God, over all the devices of the adversary. Despite these evil devices, Saturn remained in Taurus, in many of these signs, including this one, under the unfailing righteous judgement of God, and His agents of Light. The Moon was also in Sagittarius for the second time during these signs, occulting the star Nunki-symbolizing the Prince of Peace. During this early Gentile recognition of the King of Kings by the Magi, we see the first evidence of what the Apostle Paul would later write in the Book of Ephesians.

Ephesians 2:11-22

11 Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands; 12 That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world: 13 But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ. 14 For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; 15 Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace; 16 And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby: 17 And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh. 18 For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father. 19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God; 20And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; 21 In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord: 22 In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit

 The long awaited and prophesied King had finally arrived, who would make peace between the Judeans and the Gentiles, the prince of peace and the true temple in the Lord.

  In summary, Martin’s contention that the annual retrograde motion of Jupiter, which caused "his star" to stand still beginning on December 25th 2 BC, would explain much of the confusion traditionally associated with this date as the birth of Christ. Martin states that; This may have been the time when the Magi presented their gifts to Jesus. This could be a reason why people in the later Christian Church said that December 25th was a day associated with the Magi giving their gifts to the newborn Jesus. As more people awake to these truths, we no longer need to remain bound in the dark shackles of tradition regarding the birth of Christ.



1. THE STAR THAT ASTONISHED THE WORLD, Dr. Earnest Martin p. 47.

2. Jesus Christ Our Promised Seed, V.P. Wierwille ppg. 63-64.

3. IBID p. 17.

4. IBID p.

5. IBID p. 235.

6. IBID p. 234.

7. THE STAR THAT ASTONISHED THE WORLD, Dr. Earnest Martin p. 49.


9. The Witness of the Stars, E.W. Bullinger ppg. 36-37.

10. IBID footnote p.37

11. The Mazzaroth, Frances Rolleston. Footnote on "The Star of Bethlehem." 

12. The Gospel in th Stars, Joseph Seiss, p. 161.

13. THE STAR THAT ASTONISHED THE WORLD, Dr. Earnest Martin. p. 60.


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